June 1, 2023


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CgAT: Center-Guided Adversarial Training for Deep Hashing-Based Retrieval. (arXiv:2204.10779v6 [cs.CV] UPDATED)

Deep hashing has been extensively utilized in massive image retrieval because
of its efficiency and effectiveness. However, deep hashing models are
vulnerable to adversarial examples, making it essential to develop adversarial
defense methods for image retrieval. Existing solutions achieved limited
defense performance because of using weak adversarial samples for training and
lacking discriminative optimization objectives to learn robust features. In
this paper, we present a min-max based Center-guided Adversarial Training,
namely CgAT, to improve the robustness of deep hashing networks through worst
adversarial examples. Specifically, we first formulate the center code as a
semantically-discriminative representative of the input image content, which
preserves the semantic similarity with positive samples and dissimilarity with
negative examples. We prove that a mathematical formula can calculate the
center code immediately. After obtaining the center codes in each optimization
iteration of the deep hashing network, they are adopted to guide the
adversarial training process. On the one hand, CgAT generates the worst
adversarial examples as augmented data by maximizing the Hamming distance
between the hash codes of the adversarial examples and the center codes. On the
other hand, CgAT learns to mitigate the effects of adversarial samples by
minimizing the Hamming distance to the center codes. Extensive experiments on
the benchmark datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of our adversarial
training algorithm in defending against adversarial attacks for deep
hashing-based retrieval. Compared with the current state-of-the-art defense
method, we significantly improve the defense performance by an average of
18.61%, 12.35%, and 11.56% on FLICKR-25K, NUS-WIDE, and MS-COCO,
respectively. The code is available at https://github.com/xunguangwang/CgAT.